The sensors use Wheatstone bridge devices to measure magnetic fields.
With a power supply applied to a bridge, the sensor converts any incident magnetic field in the sensitive axis direction to a differential voltage output.
The internal resistance of the copper path used for current sensing is typically 1.5 mΩ for low power loss.The device also has the ability to sense fields that are shielded by non-ferrous materials, providing key advantages in areas such as motor control.Several different types of Hall Effect devices are available, suitable for applications ranging from switches and linear magnetic field sensors to current sensor ICs and devices that can detect speed and direction.Linear sensor A linear Hall Effect sensor generates an analog or pulse-width-modulated (PWM) output that is directly proportional to the applied magnetic field, and simpler version of this can be used as a switch with operating and release points.The sensors can be used either ‘head on’ or in a ‘slide-by’ mode.
Because the output only is in proportion to the one-dimensional axis (the principle of anisotropy) and its magnitude, additional sensor bridges placed at orthogonal directions permit accurate measurement of arbitrary field direction.The combination of sensor bridges in two and three orthogonal axes mean the devices can be used in applications such as compassing and magnetometry.They eliminate the need for external coils positioned around the sensors.The magnetoresistive sensors are made of a nickel-iron (Permalloy) thin film, deposited on a silicon wafer and patterned as a resistive strip element.Each device integrates a Hall element, temperature-compensating circuitry to reduce the intrinsic sensitivity drift of the Hall element, a small-signal high-gain amplifier, a clamped low-impedance output stage, and a proprietary dynamic offset cancellation technique.
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The A1324/25/26 feature factory programmed sensitivities of 5.0 m V/G, 3.125 m V/G, and 2.5 m V/G, respectively, for industrial applications requiring high accuracy, and are guaranteed through an extended temperature range of –40°C to 150°C.The slide-by method typically results in better sensing precision than the head-on method due to its smaller magnet travel.The large magnetic slope between the poles makes it possible to obtain very precise switch point locations.This voltage occurs perpendicular to the current and the magnetic field, providing key information on the strength but more importantly the position and orientation of the field.The effect has been integrated into integrated circuits using the silicon as the conductor, giving greater reliability and durability over the more traditional reed and mechanical switching devices.